Throughout the guide, we attempt to use language that does not stigmatize individuals with alcohol and other drug problems who are involved with the justice system.
Alcohol and other drug abuse, as defined by the DSM-IV, is a maladaptive pattern of substance use marked by recurrent and significant negative consequences related to the repeated use of substances (CSAT, 2005).
ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUGS
“Alcohol and other drugs” includes alcohol, illicit drugs, prescription drugs, and tobacco products.
“Alcohol and other drug problems” describes a wide range of problems, including unhealthy or hazardous drinking and drug use, abuse, and dependence. Alcohol and other drug problems may also be referred to as substance abuse, substance use disorders, alcohol use disorders, and/or drug use disorders.
BINGE DRINKING / BINGE DRINKING
The definition of binge drinking varies based on age and gender. For men between age 18 and 65, bingeing is drinking 5 or more drinks in one occasion; while for women and people over 65, bingeing is drinking 4 or more drinks in one occasion (Saitz, 2005). For adolescents, the Institute of Medicine report Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility used the term “heavy drinking” to refer to consumption of five or more drinks on the same occasion in the past 30 days (National Research Council and IOM, 2004).
Alcohol and other drug dependence, as defined by the DSM-IV, is a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms indicating that the individual is continuing use of the substance despite adverse consequences (CSAT, 2005).
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) are guidelines developed by the American Psychiatric Association to diagnose mental disorders, including alcohol and other drug abuse and dependence.
Evidence-based refers to at least one randomized clinical trial has shown this practice to be effective and the practice either targets behaviors or shows good effect on behaviors that are generally accepted outcomes.
Justice system refers to both the criminal and civil justice systems and other agencies/organizations that play a significant role in the administration of justice, such as corrections departments.
Treatment refers to a broad range of services—including identification, brief intervention, assessment, diagnosis, counseling, medical services, psychiatric services, psychological services, social services, and continuing care—for individuals with alcohol and other drug problems. The goal of treatment is to reduce or eliminate the use of alcohol and other drugs as a contributing factor to physical, psychological, and social dysfunction and eliminate associated problems (IOM, 1999).
Treatment System refers to all providers of a broad range services—including identification, brief intervention, assessment, diagnosis, counseling, medical services, psychiatric services, psychological services, and social services